Building Bridges and Facilitating Dialogue in the Moonsighting Issue
Another Ramadan has passed, and as expected has brought with it the disputes arising from the following of the Saudi moonsighting reports. This year's Ramadan started off relatively peacefully but was concluded with much anger and finger pointing; not least due to the false reports circulated regarding a Saudi government retraction over the sighting of the moon.
A cause of concern was the absence of an attempt to verify these now debunked reports on the part of prominent scholars in the "anti -Saudi" moonsighting camp. On the other hand equally disturbing were the insults hurled on some forums at those Muslims who did not follow the Saudi sighting but rather relied upon local sightings to determine the day of Eid. Both of these extremes of the spectrum were anecdotally observed by us, but were symptomatic of a pattern which has emerged annually and currently shows little sign of abating.
Building Bridges and Facilitating Dialogue
The Karima al-Marwaziyya Foundation has been extremely fortunate to be able to build links and work on educational projects with some Saudi based Hanafi scholars over the past 5 years. We are pleased to announce that these links which have been forged have allowed us to raise this contentious issue with scholarly contacts within Saudi Arabia. An attempt has also been made in the past to encourage UK scholars from the "anti-Saudi" moonsighting camp to engage in dialogue and discussion with a Saudi jurist of Hanafi fiqh. Although these invitations have not been answered adequately by the scholars who were approached we have still persisted with this project and feel it necessary to inform the general public of developments. As the vast majority of the Muslims of the UK follow the Hanafi school we felt it pertinent to liaise with a Saudi jurist who is expert in the Hanafi school who would be able to understand the concerns of UK scholars in a comprehensive manner.
The above summary will be expanded upon insh-Allah in the near future along with further details and rationale for approaches taken. Our next steps to build bridges and facilitating dialogue will be the visit to the UK of the main Saudi scholar we are liasing with; to enable him to understand concerns of all parties and help move the current discussion from fiery sermons and heated outbursts on television shows to a constructive solution to this issue insh-Allah.
Through Allah (Most High) all good things are facilitated and completed.
For further information please check back regularly or contact us.
"...the worship of Allah (Most High) is a condition for the attainment of reward on the Laylat al-Qadr as indicated to by His words (Upon him be peace) “Whoever spends the night of Laylat al-Qadr (in worship) with faith…” and His (Upon him be peace) words “They send blessings upon every servant standing or sitting remembering Allah” Issue: Whoever offers the Isha and Fajr prayers during this night in congregation has attained the reward of that night, and whoever increases upon this will be given more by Allah.
It is reported from Uthman (Allah be pleased with him) that he said: The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “Whoever prays Isha in congregation is as if he spent half of the night in worship, and whoever prays the morning prayer in congregation is as if he prayed all of the night”, reported by Muslim.
Meaning whoever prays the morning prayer in congregation after his praying Isha is as if prayed all of the night, for each of the prayers is equivalent to half of the night, for they are both the obligatory prayers of the night. As for Maghrib it is the Witr of the day.
It is desirable to make plentiful (recitation) in Laylat al-Qadr of:
اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ عَفُوٌّ كَرِيمٌ تُحِبُّ الْعَفْوَ فَاعْفُ عَنِّي
Due to the hadith of Aishah that she said: O Messenger of Allah! What if I knew which night Laylat al-Qadr was, then what should I say in it?” He said.- “Say.- (Allahumma innaka Affuwun…” reported by Ahmad, Ibn Majah and al-Tirmidhi- And Allah (Most High) knows best."
Fatwa on the Mawlid
By Mawlana Abd al-Hayy al-Luknawi in his Majmua al-Fatawa (2/160-163)
The following is a clear legal verdict regarding the mawlid from a scholar who is respected across the different schools prevalent in the Indian Subcontinent as well as the Arab world.
In the course of an answer to a detailed question regarding the legal verdict of the Mawlid gatherings, Mawlana Abd al-Hayy al-Luknawi after discussing the issue of innovation proceeded to say the following:
“After these introductory points I say the mention of the Milad in of itself is not an innovation of misguidance due to two reasons:
First: The dhikr-e-milad is that in which a recitor (dhakir) recites a verse or hadith and in its explanation makes mention of some of the prophetic virtues and miracles. He also mentions a little of the events of the birth, lineage and the miraculous events which manifested at the time of the birth; as has been written by Ibn Hajar Makki (Allah have mercy on him) in Nimat al-Kubra ala Alim bi Mawlid Sayid Walad Adam.
It existed at the time of the Prophet and the companions, however it was not known by this name. It will not be hidden to the experts of the science of hadith that the companions in gatherings of admonishment and learning of knowledge would mention the Prophetic virtues and miracles. It is mentioned in the Sahih works that Master of the worlds (Allah bless him and give him peace) would seat Hassan bin Thabit (Allah be pleased with him) on the pulpit in the masjid, who would recite poems in praise of the prophet…and He [Allah bless him and give him peace] would pray for goodness for him and say, ‘O Allah, aid him by means of Gibril (Ruh al-Quds)’.
It will not be hidden to those who view the collection of Hassan’s (Allah be pleased with them) poetry that his poems contain mention of miracles, events of the birth and noble lineage etc. Thus reciting verses such as these is exactly dhikr-e-milad. The account of Hassan’s (Allah be pleased with him) reciting of verses in the masjid is also present in Sahih al-Bukhari and in reality there is no difference between the dhikr-e-milad and this incident. The matter that this dhikr’s name was not Majlis-e-Milad is superfluous.
Secondly if there is some discomfort that in of itself the existence of the mention of the birth and virtues is established, however the inviting of people in dhikr-e-milad is not established, then it will be countered that the spreading of knowledge by means of gathering and calling of people is established from hadith.
Faqih Abu al-Layth (Allah have mercy on him) in Tanbih al-Ghafilin writes, “…Ali bin Abi Talib said, ‘When the victory of Allah comes’ was revealed during the illness of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him and his family peace). Immediately on the Thursday he came out and ascended the pulpit and sat upon it. He then called Bilal and asked him to announce in Madinah that they should assemble to hear the advice of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him and his family peace). Bilal called out such that the elderly and the young gathered together, leaving the doors of their homes open. Even those women who veiled themselves came out from their homes, such that the masjid became crowded due to the people in it. The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him and his family peace) said them, ‘Make space for those behind you, make space for those behind you’. He then stood up, praised Allah and glorified Him and sent salutations upon the Prophets. He then said, ‘I am Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Abd al-Muttalib bin Hashim, the Arab, from the Haram, from Makka. There is no prophet after me…’.
Apart from this there is discussion regarding the mention of the birth, and for arguments sake if it is accepted that the customary specification (takhsisat urfiyyah) are not established from this gathering, then the dhikr-e-milad being impermissible is not necessitated.
Second: If we were to accept that the mention of the birth was not present during the time of the three (generations) we still say that in the sacred law the principle is established that ‘Every method from the means of spreading knowledge is recommended’. Ibn Majah (Allah be pleased with him) narrates from Hadrat Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him and his family peace) said, ‘From that which reaches a believer of his good actions after his death is the knowledge which he spread.’
Likewise Bukhari relates in his Book of Knowledge from Umar bin Abd al-Aziz (Allah be pleased with them both) that, ‘Knowledge should be spread and you should sit so that the one who does not know learns. For knowledge is not lost as long as it is not hidden.’
Allamah Suyuti (Allah have mercy on him) in some of his treatise has written commenting on the hadith, ‘When the son of Adam dies…’ that, ‘The scholars have interpreted continuous charity as being charitable endowments (waqf); and knowledge which is benefitted from as being written works and teaching.’
It is clear that the actual dhikr-e-mawlud which has been mentioned above is a method from the means of spreading knowledge. Thus here two principles have been concluded, one that the dhikr-e-mawlud is from the means of spreading knowledge. The second is that each of the means of spreading knowledge is recommended. Thus the result is that dhikr-e-mawlud is recommended.
Bukhari relates from Wail (Allah be pleased with him) that he said, ‘Abullah bin Masud would admonish people on Thursdays. A man said to him: O Abu Abd al-Rahman, if only you would remind us each day. He replied that: I am withholding from this due to my fear of your becoming tired. I am admonishing you as just as the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him and his family peace) would admonish us, out of concern for us becoming tired.’
And do not be mistaken that when the dhikr-e-mawlud was not present in the time of the three (generations) nor was it evident during the time of the Mujtahids, then why is it possible to give a legal verdict (fatwa) for its permissibility?
…If we accept were to accept that the dhikr-e-mawlud was not present during the time of the three generations, nor that this ruling is related from the Mujtahids; however because in the sacred law the principle is established that each method from the means of spreading knowledge is recommended, and dhikr-e-mawlud is included amongst it. Thus the ruling of it being recommended will be given, this is why the knowledgeable jurists and scholars of fatwa able to deduce such as Abu Shama, Hafiz Ibn Hajar, Suyuti and Shami [Ibn Abidin] and others (Allah have mercy on all of them) gave the verdict of it being recommended…
Yes, if there are unlawful specifications and rules added to the dhikr-e-mawlud then it’s being recommended will no longer remain, however this will then become something else due to which there will be no doubt created regarding the permissibility of the Milad.
Allah knows best the truth, and with him is the reward. Written by the one hopeful of the forgiveness of his Powerful Lord: Abul Hasanat Muhammad Abd al-Hayy, may Allah overlook his manifest and hidden sins.”
Addendum: Mawlana al-Luknawi has a number of answers relating to the seperate issue of the standing (qiyam) in a certain part of the Mawlid gathering, which have to be studied carefully to understand in his position. In one fatwa he argues that those who rebuke those who do not stand in Mawlid gatherings are wrong, arguing that standing in the one specific part of the Mawlid had no reliable basis. However in another fatwa he mentions that the people of the Hijaz stand in a part of the Mawlid and that it was present in the Mawlid al-Barzanji. Thirdly, his commendation is present for the work Anwar-e-Satia by Mawlana Rampuri which defends the practice of standing at a part of the Mawlid. Thus it would appear that Mawlana al-Luknawi regarded it as permissible to stand at certain parts of the Mawlid, whilst at the same time censuring those who criticised those who would not stand. And Allah Most High knows best.
With Imam Khalids upcoming monthly lesson on the Wasiyyah of Imam al-Haddad starting next week, we thought it might be useful to post some very brief extracts from the commentary of Imam al-Habshi on this poem. The detailed commentary of Imam al-Habshi contains many gems, thus it is a difficult task deciding what to translate and what to leave. However we hope the material presented will give a glimpse of the benefits contained within the lines of this poem and its accompanying commentary. Thanks are extended to Sidi Amin Buxton for his translation of the poem.
Al-Wasiyyah of Imam al-Haddad, Lines 1-3
1. My advice to you, o distinguished and respectful one,
If you wish to attain high stations
2. And if you wish to surpass others and reach the highest levels
With ease and attain your goal and desire..
3. Then have taqwa of Allah whose mercy is hoped for,
The One, the Unique, the Reliever of difficulties
Allamah Ahmad bin Zayn bin Alawi al-Habshi said:
Advising with taqwa is the matter which is most deserving of being mentioned first, as it is the advice of Allah, the Lord of the worlds to the early and later people. Likewise it is the means to all of the good in the world and on the day of judgement. It is the firm steadfast foundation of the believers and the great precious treasure of the truthful ones.
Manners (Adab) is of great importance to the Sufis, Allah (Most High) said, “O those who believe protect yourselves and your families from the hellfire” [al-Tahrim:6]. Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with both of them) said, “Meaning teach them good manners and educate them”. In the hadith it is mentioned, “No father has gifted his son with a gift better than good manners”. [al-Tirmidhi 1952; al-Hakim 4/292].
One of them said: He who does not have good manners (adab) has no sacred law (shariah), nor faith (iman) nor tawhid.
Know that all of the religion is good manners, for every action there are good manners, for every spiritual state (hal) there are good manners, for every rank (maqam) there are good manners, for every moment there are good manners, such as the manners of wudu, prayer, fasting, zakat, Hajj, knowledge, recitation, dhikr, the manners of working and unemployment and the manners of wealth and poverty.
Taqwa: Our Shaykh the author said, “Taqwa refers to obedience to the commandments of Allah (Most High), avoiding his prohibitions both outwardly and inwardly along with a cognisance of the greatness of Allah (Most High) with awe, humility and fear. [Nasaih al-Diniyyah p.30]
Taqwa is the core principle of the people of the spiritual path upon which they have built their matter, and it is as one of them said, “Four: Establishing the obligatory acts, avoiding the unlawful, following the sunnah and adhering to good manners”.
Another of the Sufis said, “The core principles are three, First: That he makes the sacred law (shariah) the ruler upon his intellect and desires. Second: Viewing the self in utmost lowliness and despicability, such that he does not see that it deserves anything. These two are knowledge based principles. The Third is: Action based, which is action and struggling…”.
The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Have taqwa of Allah where ever you are, follow a bad action with a good action which will wipe it out. And deal with people with good manners.” [al-Tirmidhi 1987]
One of the great recent scholars from Makka was Shaykh Muhammad Yasin al-Fadani (Allah have mercy on him), who was widely regarded during his lifetime as being one of the foremost scholars for the transmission of hadith. Please find below a brief biography of the Shaykh taken from the article written by Sheikh Abd al-Wahab al-Jabi, dated 1402/1982. Sheikh al-Fadani (Allah have mercy on him) passed away some years after the authoring of this article. We ask Allah (the Exalted) to strengthen our links with him and with those that he was also close to. Ameen
Shaykh Muhammad Yasin bin Muhammad Isa al-Fadani al-Makki
He is Abul Fayd, Muhammad Yasin bin Muhammad Isa al-Fadani, belonging to Fadan or Badan, an area of Indonesia. He was of Indonesian origin but was born and raised in Makkah.
Birth and Early Education
The Shaykh was born in Makkah in the year 1335 (AH). He began his studies with his father Shaykh Muhammad Isa al-Fadani and his uncle Sheikh Mahmud al-Fadani. He then joined the Madrassa al-Sawlatiyyah al-Hindiyyah where he supplemented his studies with his regular attendance of the circles taking place in the Masjid al-Haram. He completed his studies at the Dar al-Ulum al-Diniyyah after it was set up.
His Teachers and Subjects Studied
From those that he studied with during this period were the Sibaway of his age: Allamah Shaykh Muhammad Ali bin Hussein bin Ibrahim al-Maliki al-Makki (Allah have mercy on him) with whom he read a number of works amongst them being:
-Jam' al-Jawami' with its commentary Hum' al-Hawami' in grammar by al-Hafidh al-Suyuti
-Jalal al-Mahalli's commentary on the Jam' al-Jawami' in Usul along with the marginalia of al-Attar and al-Bannani
-Tuhfa al-Muhtaj of Ibn Hajar al-Haytami al-Makki with the marginalia of al-Sharwani and Ibn Qasim al-Ibadi
-Zad al-Muslim of al-Shinqiti
-Al-Risalah al-Waladiyah fi Adaab al-Bahth wal-Munazarah
-Portions from the Sahih's of al-Bukhari and Muslim
-The whole of Sunan al-Nasai
He studied other works with him and kept his close company for a considerable time. He compiled his Shaykhs chains of narration in a work which he named: 'Al-Maslak al-Jalli fi Asanid Fadilah al-Sheikh Muhammad Ali' in which he also included a detailed biography.
He studied with Allamah al-Shaykh Hasan bin Muhammad al-Mashat al-Makki (Allah have mercy on him) a number of works, amongst them being:
-Al-Tuhfah al-Sanniyah on Inheritance
-Al-Fawaid al-Shanshuriyyah on Inheritance
-Lub al-Usul with its commentary Ghayah al-Wusul
-The commentary on al-Suyuti's Alfiyyah on hadith terminology by Muhammad Mahfiz al-Tarmasi entitled: Manhaj Dhul Nazar fi Manzumah Ilm al-Athar
-Mukhtasar Ibn Abi Jamrah
-Sunan Abi Dawud
-Raf' al-Astar an Mahya Mukhadrat Talat al-Anwar
-Al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah of al-Qastallani
-Ihya Ulum al-Din of al-Ghazali with its commentary by al-Hafidh al-Sayyid Muhammad Murtada al-Zabidi
-The Hikam of Ibn Ataillah al-Iskandari
He Studied with the Muhaddith of the two noble sanctuaries: Umar bin Hamdan al-Mahrasi al-Maliki (Allah have mercy on him) a large number of works in the Madrassa al-Sawlatiyyah, in the Haram al-Makki and in the Shaykhs home, amongst them being:
-A considerable amount of the six books of hadith
-Muwatta Imam Malik
-Al-Jami' al-Saghir of al-Suyuti with its commentary Fayd al-Qadir of al-Munawi
-Bulugh al-Maram min Adillah al-Ahkam
-Al-Shifa fi Huquq al-Mustafa
-Jam' al-Fawaid of al-Rawdani
-Portions of al-Ashbah wal Nazair
-A large number of portions from around 20 works in grammar, hadith, tafsir and their related sciences
He attended his lessons in fiqh, balaghah and read with him the pattern chained narrations (musalsalat) of:
-Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Aqilah al-Makki
-Ali bin Zahir al-Watri al-Madani
-Abid al-Sindi al-Madani
-Falih bin Muhammad al-Zahiri al-Madani
-Al-Sayyid Hussein bin Muhammad al-Habashi al-Makki
Along with other rare pattern chained narrations from other scholars.
He gathered together his chains of narration in a large work named: Matmah al-Wajdan min Asanid Umar Hamdan, which he later abridged into: It-haf al-Ikhwan
He read with the Mufti of the Shafi's, Allamah al-Faqih al-Shaykh Umar Ba Junayd (Allah have mercy on him) a number of works, amongst them:
-Ibn Qasim al-Ghazzi's commentary on the text al-Ghayah wal-Taqrib
-Al-Iqnah Sharh Matn Abi Shujah (Matn Ghayah wal-Taqrib)
-Fath al-Wahhab Sharh Manhaj al-Tullab of Zakariyyah al-Ansari
-Tuhfa al-Muhtaj of Ibn Hajar al-Haytami
-Minhaj al-Talibin of al-Nawawi with the commentary of al-Mahalli and marginalia of Qalyubi and Umayrah
-Mughni al-Muhtaj of al-Khatib al-Shirbini
-Sahih al-Bukhari with the notes of al-Sindi
He studied Rawd al-Talib and its commentary Asna al-Matalib and the Sharh of al-Mahalli with the the Minhaj of al-Nawawi with the mariginalia of Qalyubi and Umayrah with Shaykh Saeed bin Muhammad al-Yamani and his son Shaykh Hasan al-Yamani (Allah have mercy on them both). Likewise he attended the latters lessons on Sahih Muslim and Sunan al-Nasai.
These three scholars: Shaykh Umar Ba Junayd, Shaykh Saeed Yamani and Shaykh Hasan Yamani were regarded as his main teachers of Shafi fiqh.
He studied with al-Sayyid Muhsin bin Ali al-Musawi al-Fillimbani then al-Makki (Allah have mercy on him) Shafi fiqh and Usul. He kept his close company and benefited greatly from him. He compiled a biography of his along with his chains of narration in the work: Fayd al-Muhaimin fi Tarjamah wa Asanid al-Sayyid Muhsin.
He studied with Allamah Abdullah Muhammad al-Ghazi al-Makki (Allah have mercy on him) a large number of athbat (collations of chains of narration), more specifically his large thabat: Tanshit al-Fuad bin Tazkar Ulum al-Isnad, and the thabat in which he gathered the chains of his Shaykh al-Habib Hussein al-Habashi al-Alawi named: Fath al-Qawi.
He took from him the Musalsalat of Ibn Aqilah and kept his close company and benefited greatly from him.
He studied with Shaykh Ibrahim bin Dawud al-Fatani al-Makki a number of works in Masjid al-Haram and Dar al-Ulum al-Diniyyah, amongst them:
-Tafsir al-Baydawi with the marginalia of Shihab al-Khafaji, which entailed a detailed reading, study and verification.
-Jam' al-Jawami' of Taj al-Subki with its commentary Jalal al-Mahalli
-Hashiyah of al-Sabban on Urud and Qawafi
-The treatise of Tash Kubrazadah on Adaab al-Bahth al-Munazarah and other works
He studied with Allamah Alawi bin Abbas al-Maliki al-Makki (Allah have mercy on him) portions from:
-Sharh Ibn Aqil on the Alfiyyah
-Al-Lam' of Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi
-Portions from Sunan Abu Dawud
-The athbat of al-Kawrani, al-Basri, al-Nakhli, al-Fulani, al-Shawkani and al-Ameer (Allah have mercy on all of them).
He studied with Allamah al-Sayyid Muhammad bin Ameen al-Kutbi al-Makki a number of works, amongst them:
-Al-Ashmuni on the Alfiyyah
-The treatise of Tash Kubrazadah on Adaab fi al-Bahth wal-Munazarah
He attended the lessons of Allamah Shihab Ahmad al-Mukhallalati al-Shami then al-Makki (Allah have mercy on him). He took from him the musalasalat transmitted from the scholars of al-Shaam. He compiled his chains and biography in a work named: Al-Wasl al-Rati fi Asanid wa Tarjamah al-Shihab Ahmad al-Mukhallalati.
He studied with Allamah Khalifah bin Hamd al-Nabhani al-Bahraini then al-Makki a number of sciences, more specifically that of astronomy. He compiled his chains and biography in: Fayd al-Rahman fi Tarjamah wa Asanid al-Sheikh Khalifah bin Hamd aal-Nabhan
He attended the lessons on hadith, its terminology and hadith of Allamah Ubaidullah bin al-Islam al-Sindi al-Deobandi in the Masjid al-Haram.
Likewise he attended the lessons of Allamah Hussein Ahmad al-Faydabadi better known as al-Madani, and Allamah Abd al-Qadir bin Tawfiq Shalabi, both of them in al-Madinah al-Munawwarah.
He received the hadith collection: Al-Manahil al-Salsalah fi al-Ahadith al-Musalsalah, from its compiler Allamah Muhammad Abd al-Baqi al-Luknawi al-Ansari al-Madani (Allah have mercy upon him).
Likewise he received the musalsalat: Hadi al-Mustarshidin, from its author Abd al-Hadi al-Madrasi al-Shafi (Allah have mercy on him).
Apart from the above mentioned scholars, Shaykh Muhammad Yasin al-Fadani received ijazah from a large number of scholars reaching approximately 700 in number, including both men and women.
Allah the Exalted blessed him with the opportunity to teach a number of the Islamic sciences in the Masjid al-Haram and Dar al-Ulum al-Diniyyah, focussing later in his teaching career on the instruction of the noble hadith and its sciences.
After Shayikh Muhammad Yasin gained his share of knowledge he focussed his energies towards the spreading of it amongst the students of Makkah and other lands. He began teaching in Dar al-Ulum Diniyyah at the beginning of the year 1356 (AH), becoming its head in the middle of the year 1359 (AH). Alongside this he delivered a variety of lessons in the Masjid al-Haram, between the doors (Bab) Ibrahim and Wada', along with those in his home and office. Numerous students studied with him, many of them from the far east. He also gave ijazah to a large number of visitors to the holy city who came to visit him. Not least his ijazah to all those of his age which he gave a number of times.
The Shaykh authored a number of works, some of them unpublished, others in print and used by students in centres of learning throughout the world, not least for the soundness of their content and fine layout. From amongst his works are:
-Al-Dur al-Mandud Sharh Sunan Abi Dawud (20 volumes)
-Fath al-Allam Sharh Bulugh al-Maram (4 volumes)
Usul al-Fiqh And Qawaid al-Fiqh
-Bughyah al-Mushtaq Sharh Lum' Abi Ishaq (2 Volumes)
-Hashiyah ala al-Ashbah wal-Nazair fi al-Furu al-Fiqhiyyah of al-Suyuti
-Tatmim al-Dukhul Taliqat ala Madkhal al-Wusul ila Ilm al-Usul
-Al-Durar al-Nadid Hawashi ala Kitab al-Tamhid of al-Isnawi
-Al-Fawaid al-Junniyah Hashiyah ala al-Mawahib al-Sunniyah ala Qawaid al-Fiqhiyyah
-Taliqat ala Lum' al-Sheikh Abi Ishaq
-Ida'ah al-Nur al-Lami' Sharh al-Kawkab al-Sati' Nazm Jam'al-Jawami'
-Hashiyah ala al-Talatuf Sharh al-Tarruf fi Usul al-Fiqh
-Nayl al-Ma'mul Hashiyah ala Lub al-Usul and its commentary Ghayah al-Wusul
-Janni al-Thamr Sharh Manzumah Manazil al-Qamr
-Al-Mukhtasar al-Muhadhab fi Istikhraj al-Awqat wal Qibliyyah bi Ribh alMujib
-Al-Mawahib al-Jazilah Sharh Thamarat al-Wasilah fil Falak
-Tashnif al-Sam', Mukhtasar fi Ilm al-Wada'
-Bulghah al-Mushtaq fi Ilm al-Ishtiqaq
-Manhal al-Ifadah, Hawashi ala Risalah al-Bahth li Tash Kubrazadah
-Husn al-Siyaghah Sharh Kitab Durus al-Balaghah
-Risalah fil Mantiq
-It-haf al-Khallan Tawdih Tuhfah al-Ikhwan fi Ilm al-Bayan of al-Dardir
-Al-Risalah al-Bayaniyyah –In a question and answer format
Science of Hadith and Chains of Narration
-Matmah al-Wajdan fi Asanid al-Sheikh Umar Hamdan (3 large volumes)
-It-haf al-Ikhwan bi Ikhtisar Matmah al-Wajdan
-Tanwir al-Basirah bi Turuq al-Isnad al-Shahirah
-Fayd al-Rahman fi Tarjamah wa Asanid al-Sheikh Khalifah bin Hamd aal-Nabhan
-Al-Qawl al-Jamil bi Ijazah Samahah al-Sayyid Ibrahim Aqil
-Fayd al-Muhaimin fi Tarjamah wa Asanid al-Sayyid Muhsin
-Al-Maslak al-Jalli fi Tarjamah wa Asanid al-Sheikh Muhammad Ali
-Al-Wasl al-Rati fi Tarjamah wa Asanid al-Shihab Ahmad al-Mukhallalati
-Asanid Ahmad bin Hajar al-Haytami al-Makki
-Al-Irshadat al-Sawiyyah fi Asanid al-Kutub al-Nahwiyyah wal-Sarfiyyah
-Al-Ujalah fi al-Ahadith al-Musalsalah
-Asma al-Ghayat fi Asanid al-Sheikh Ibrahim al-Khuzami fi al-Qira'at
-Asanid al-Kutub al-Hadithiyyah al-Sab'ah
-Al-Iqd al-Farid min Jawahir al-Asanid
-It-haf al-Bararah bi Asanid al-Kutub al-Hadithiyah al-Asharah
-It-haf al-Mustafid bi Nur al-Asanid
-Qurrat al-Ain fi Asanid Alam al-Haramain
-It-haf Ulul Himamal-Aliyyah bi Kalam ala Hadith al-Musalsal bil Awwaliyyah
-Al-Dur al-Farid min Durar al-Asanid
-Bughyah al-Murid min Ulum al-Asanid
-Al-Muqtataf min It-haf al-Akabir bi Marwiyyat Abd al-Qadir al-Siddiqi al-Makki
-Ikhtisar Riyadh Ahl al-Jannah min Athar Ahl al-Sunnah of Ab al-Baqi al-Ba'li al-Hanbali
-Fayd al-Ilah al-Aliyy fi Asanid Abd al-Baqi al-Ba'li al-Hanbali
-Arbaoon Hadithan min arbaeen Kitaban an Arbaeen Sheikhan
-Arbaoon al-Buldaniyyah Arbaoon Hadithan an Arbaoon Sheikhan min Arbaeen Baladan
-Arbaoon Hadithan Musalsalah bi al-Nuhah ila Jalal al-Suyuti
-Al-Salasil al-Mukhtarah bi Ijazah al-Muarrikh al-Sayyid Muhammad bin Muhammad Zayarah
-Tadhkar al-Musafi bi Ijazah al-Fakhr Abdullah bin Abd al-Karim al-Jurafi
-Al-Nafha al-Makkiyahfi Asanid al-Makkiyah, Ijazah li Nabighah al-Qadi Muhammad bin Abdullah al-Umari
-Fath Rab al-Majid fima al-Ashyakhi min Faraid al-Ijazat wal Asanid
-Silsilah al-Waslah Majmuah Mukhtarah min al-Ahadith al-Musalsalah, Ijazah lil Qadi al-Sayyid Abu Bakr al-Habshi
-Al-Kawakib al-Durari bi Ijazah Mahmud Saeed Mamduh al-Qahiri
-Fayd al-Mubdi bi Ijazah al-Sheikh Muhammad Awd Munqash al-Zabidi
-Al-Fayd al-Rahmani bi Ijazah Samaha al-Allamah al-Kabir Muhammad Taqi al-Uthmani
His Notes Upon Other Collections of Chains of Transmission
-Nihayah al-Matlab Ala al-Arb fi Ulum al-Isnad wal Adab
-Two treatise upon al-Amirs thabat (i) Al-Dur al-Nadir (ii) Al-Rawd al-Nadir fi Majmu al-Ijazat bi Thabat al-Amir
-Two treatise upon the al-Awail al-Sunbuliyyah (i) Al-Ujalah al-Makiyyah (ii)Al-Nafha al-Miskiyyah
-Waraqat ala Al-Jawhar al-Thamin fi Arbaeen Hadithan min Ahadith Sayyid al-Mursaleen of al-Ajluni
-It-haf al-Bahith al-Surri ala Thabat Abd al-Rahman al-Kuzbari
-Taliqat ala Kifayah al-Mustafid lil Sheikh Mahfuz al-Tarmasi
-Tahqiq al-Jami' al-Hawi fi Marwiyyat al-Sharqawi
He is the most learned scholar and Sufi: Ibrahim bin Ismaeel bin Muhammad Siddiq bin Muhammad Hasan al-Yaqubi al-Hasani al-Jazairi, then al-Dimashqi. The origin of his family returns back to the Algeria.
His great grandfather Sh. Muhammad al-Hasan migrated with his family as part of the famously known ‘Migration of the Scholars’ (Hijrah al-Mashaikh) during the middle of the thirteenth Islamic century, along with Sh. Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Saklawi and Sh. Muhammad al-Mubarak al-Kabir. His grandfather reached Damascus in the year 1263 Hijri.
Early Life and Seeking of Knowledge
Sh. Ibrahim was born in Damascus on the night of Eid al-Adha in the year 1343 Hijri and was raised under the supervision of his father who taught him whilst he was still young the fundamentals of Aqidah and the Quran in the recitation of Warsh.
He began the study of various sciences firstly in the ‘Maktab’ of Sh. Mustafa al-Jazairi, then he was moved after some months by his father to the ‘Maktab’ of Sh. Muhammad Ali al-Hijazi al-Kaylani where he remained for around six years the duration of which he memorized most of the Quran.
He studied with the spiritual guide Sh. Muhammad al-Hashimi, the Sheikh of the Shadhili order, who resided nearby to the home of Sh. Ibrahims father. Sh. Ibrahim would accompany Sh. al-Hashimi to the Jami al-Baridi, Jami Nur al-Dinal-Shahid and the Madrassa al-Shamiyah wherein would take place circles of dhikr and learning. He memorized with him during this time ‘Nadhm Aqidah Ahl al-Sunnah’ and a portion of ‘Diwan al-Mustaghnami’. He studied with him the ‘Sharh al-Risalah’ of al-Sharnubi and al-Zarqani, and ‘Bulghah al-Salik’ in Maliki fiqh, ‘Sharh Nadhm Aqidah Ahl al-Sunnah’, ‘Miftah al-Jannah’ and ‘Risalah al-Qushayriyyah’ which took place at private lessons in his home.
He studied with him in the Umayyad mosque and other places the commentary of ‘Ibn Ashir’
by Sh. Muhammad bin Yusuf al-Kafi called ‘Al-Murshid al-Mueen’, ‘Tafsir Ibn Ajibah’, ‘Sharh al-Hikam’ of Ibn Ajibah, ‘Sharh al-Bayquniyyah’ of al-Zarqani, ‘Awarif al-Maarif’ of al-Suhrawardi, ‘Nawadir al-Usul’, ‘Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyah’, ‘Al-Hikam al-Ataiyah’ and the two Sahihs.
He was granted a general ijazah by him on the 24th of Shawwal 1379 Hijri in the rational and transmitted sciences, aswell as the litanies of the Shadhili order.
He attended with his father whilst young the lessons of the Muhaddith Sh. Muhammad Badr al-Din al-Hasani, aswell as regularly visiting and benefitting from the lessons of his uncle Sh. Muhammad al-Sharif al-Yaqubi, whose public lessons he attended in the prayer niche (mihrab) of the Maliki’s in the Umayyad mosque and his home.
He also studied with his uncle Sh. Muhammad al-Arabi al-Yaqubi in the prayer niche of the Malikis in the Umayyad mosque.
He studied the fourth volume of the work ‘Al-Durus al-Nahwiyah’ of Hisni Nasif with Sh. Muhammad Ali al-Qattan and kept the company of Sh. Hussein al-Baghjati from whom he benefitted from in the sciences of calligraphy, recitation (tajwid) and Prophetic biography (sirah).
He attended during this period of time the public lessons which would take place in the Sinaniyyah mosque by Sh. Ali al-Daqr, Sh. Hashim al-Khatib, Sh. Muhammad Shakir al-Misri better known as al-Himsi, Sh. Abd al-Majid al-Tarabishi with whom he studied ‘Multaqa al Abhur’ and ‘Maraqi al-Falah’. He studied with Sh. Abd al-Hamid al-Qabuni ‘Hidayah al-Mustafid’ and the text of ‘Ghayah wa al-Taqrib’.
He also studied with Sh. Abd al-Qadir al-Iskandari and Sh. Muhammad Barakat.
His father Sh. Ismail was his first spiritual guide and the most important of his teachers during his life. He took from the Shadhili path and benefitted from his instructions and training. He likewise took from him the Qadiri and Khalwati orders aswell, and was authorised in a number of them by him.
He benefitted from the lessons of Sh. Muhammad al-Makki al-Kattani, he studied with him in his home. He read with him the ‘Al-Arbain al-Ajluniyyah’, the ‘Sharh al-Bukhari’ of al-Qastallani, ‘Lataif al-Minan’ and ‘Ruh al-Quds’. He took from him the Shadhili Qadiri path. He also narrated from him the pattern chained narrations (musalsal) of mercy (rahmah), interlacing fingers, shaking hands and the hadith of Muadh Ibn Jabal. He was granted a lengthy ijazah by him in his handwriting in on the 24th of Shaban 1378.
He took from Sh. Muhammad al-Arabi al-Azuzi in Damascus when he came from Beirut, and hosted him a number of times. He read with him the ‘Al-Arabin al-Ajluniyyah’ in one sitting, a number of treatise on some sciences of tasawwuf and was granted a general ijazah by him dated the 8th of Shawwal 1381.
He attended the lessons of Sh. Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Yallas al-Tilmisani at his home. He read with him ‘Subul al-Salam Sharh Bulugh al-Maram’, ‘Sharh al-Hikam’ of Ibn Ajibah, ‘Taysir al-Wusul ila Jami al-Usul’, ‘Hashiyah al-Arusi ala Sharh al-Risalah al-Qushayriyyah, ‘Sunan Ibn Majah’, ‘Idah al-Maqsud fi Mana Wahdah al-Wujud’ of Sh. Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi. He likewise attended the lessons which would take place in peoples homes in which he read ‘Dalil al-Falihin’ and ‘Al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyyah’. He attended in his Zawiyah al-Samadiyah many of his circles of dhikr, and studied the ‘Hashiyah al-Bajuri’ on the Shamail of al-Tirmidhi and ‘Ghaliyah al-Mawaiz’. From him he took the Shadhili way and was granted an ijazah verbally.
He studied with Sh. Muhammad Salih al-Farfur ‘Tafsir al-Nasafi’ from the beginning up to Yasin. ‘Sharh Ibn Aqil’ on the Alfiyyah of Ibn Malik, ‘Sharh al-Manar’ of Ibn Malik, ‘Sharh al-Sirajiyyah’, ‘Jawahir al-Balaghah’, ‘Asrar al-Balaghah’, ‘Al-Kamil’ of al-Mubrad, ‘Tadrib al-Rawi’, ‘Risalah al-Qushayriyyah’ and attended his morning lessons on the ‘Hashiyah Ibn Abidin’, ‘Sahih al-Tirmidhi’, ‘Al-Minan al-Kubra’, ‘Sharh al-Hikam’ of Ibn Ajibah, ‘Al-Yawaqit wal-Jawahir’ and around 8 volumes from ‘Umdah al-Qari’ of al-Aini. In addition he attended his evening lessons on ‘Sharh al-Qutb al-Razi ala al-Shamsiyyah’ on logic (mantiq) by Najm al-Din al-Katibi, ‘Hashiyah al-Adawi ala Khulasah al-Hisab’ of al-Amili, ‘Hashiyah al-Bajuri ala al-Jawharah’ a number of times, ‘Sharh al-Musayarah’ of Ibn Abi Sharif. He attended after after the Asr prayer in his home the ‘Tafsir al-Kashaf’ of al-Zamakhshari and ‘Dalail al-Ijaz’ and was granted a written ijazah by him.
He studied with Sh. Abd al-Wahab al-Hafidh better known as Dibs Wazit the text ‘Multaqa al-Abhur’ in the Umayyad mosque, and attended his public lessons in the month of Ramadan. He sought an ijazah from him and was authorised with one verbally a number of times and promised a written one, but passed away before he could write it. Sh. Abd al-Wahab would say: If you wish to ask regarding a ruling in the hanafi madhab and do not find me, then ask Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqubi in the prayer niche (mihrab) of the Malikis in the Jami al-Umawi’.
He visited Sh. Ahmad al-Harun a number of times, was given ijazah in his specific litanies.
He attended some of Sh. Muhammad Saeed al-Burhani’s lessons in the Umayyad mosque for the books ‘Al-Minan al-Kubra’ and ‘Al-Awarif wal Maarif’ and took the the Shadhili path from him, and there was between both of them a close relationship.
He attended some of Sh. Muhammad Abi al-Khair al-Maydanis lessons in Dar al-Hadith for the book ‘Sharh al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah’ of al-Zarqani, and heard from him the hadith of mercy, and took the Naqshbandi path from him. He read to him the beginning of ‘Al-Jami al-Saghir’ of al-Suyuti and was given a general ijazah by him and was promised a written one.
He studied with Sh. Nuh al-Albani at him home the ‘Risalah al-Sibt al-Mardini fi Amal bi al-Rub al-Mujib’.
He read to the Quran recitor Sh. Muhammad Sadiq Alwan the whole Quran, and read the ‘Sharh al-Jazariyyah’ and ‘Manar al-Huda’ of al-Ashmuni to him.
He studied with Sh. Muhammad Abi Yusr Abidin in a private gathering some of the treatise of Ibn Abidin and who said: My successor in fiqh and usul is Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqubi.
He obtained numerous ijazahs other than the ones mentioned, amongst them being the ijazah from Sh. Abd al-Karim al-Saqli, Sh. Zayn al-Abidin al-Tunisi and Sh. Ali al-Boudilimi.
He memorized a large number of texts, their sum total exceeding 25,000 lines of poetry. He would cite much of them during his lessons, such as the ‘Al-Kafiyah al-Shafiyah’ of Ibn Malik and his ‘Al-Alfiyyah’. Likewise ‘Ghayah al-Maani’ of al-Baytushi, ‘Nadhm Mughni al-Labib’, ‘Lamiyah al-Afal’, ‘Muthalathath Qatrab’, ‘Nadhm Mukhtasar al-Manar’, Al-Kawakabiyah’ in Usul, ‘Maunah al-Rahman’ in Hanafi fiqh, ‘Matn Ibn Ashir’, ‘Tuhfah al-Hukkam’ better known as ‘Al-Asimiyyah’ in Maliki fiqh.
He memorized ‘Matn al-Zubad’, ‘Nadhm Matn Ghayah wal-Taqrib’ in Shafi fiqh.
He memorized ‘Al-Jawharah’, ‘Al-Shaybaniyyah’ and ‘Bad al-Amali’ in Tawhid.
In hadith terminology he memorized ‘Al-Bayquniyyah’, ‘Nadhm Nukhbah al-Fikr’ and close to half of al-Iraqi’s ‘Al-Alfiyyah’.
In Balaghah he memorized ‘Al-Jawhar al-Maknun’ of al-Akhdari and in logic (mantiq) ‘Al-Sullam’, ‘Nadhm al-Shamsiyah’ and ‘Nadh Adaab al-Bahth’ of al-Marsafi.
In inhertiance law he memorized ‘Al-Rahabiyyah’ and ‘Lamiyyah al-Jabari’, and in recitation (tajwid) ‘Al-Jazariyyah’ and ‘Tuhfah al-Atfal’.
In literature he memorized the ‘Diwan al-Hamasah’ and portions of ‘Al-Mufadalliyat’, ‘Al-Muallaqat al-Ashr’ and many of the well known odes (qasaid).
From the texts written as prose he memorized ‘Al-Risalah’and ‘Matn al-Khalil’ in Maliki fiqh. In grammar ‘Qatar al-Nada’ and ‘Shudhur al-Dhahab’. Likewise ‘Al-Sanusiyyah’, ‘Matn Nur al-Idah’, ‘Al-Manar’, ‘Aqidah al-Sheikh Arsalan’ and ‘Al-Hikam al-Ataiyyah’.
He began teaching before reaching the age of 20 in the Jami al-Sinan Pasha. And was appointed as a teacher in the Jami Darwish Pasha in the year 1376 Hijri. Before this in 1373 he was appointed Imam in Jami al-Zaytuna and then the Jami al-Baridi and then the Umayyad mosque in the prayer niche (mihrab) of the Malikis and then the Hanafis, until the year 1390 Hijri.
He was appointed a teacher linked to the fatwa administration in the year 1378 Hijri.
He taught in the Jami al-Uthman, Shariah Secondary school, Mahad Fath al-Islami, Mahad Isaf Tullab Ulum al-Shariyyah, Madrassa al-Ghazali lil Ahdath and Madrassa Sijn Qilah Dimashq.
He performed the obligatory Hajj in the year 1392 via the land route, and this was his only Hajj.
He left behind a number of works, amongst them being:
-Qabs Min Siyar al-Nabawiyyah
-Al-Jami li Shawahid Ulum al-Arabiyyah (not complete)
-Al-Nur al-Faaid fi Ulum al-Mirath wal-Faraid
-Miyar al-Afkar wa Mizan al-Uqul wal-Anzar on logic (mantiq)
-Risalah al-Faraid al-Hisan fi Aqaid al-Iman
-Al-Kawkab al-Wada fi Aqidah Ahl al-Sunnah al-Gharra (poem)
-A commentary of Bulugh al-Maram (not completed)
-A poem on Adab al-Bahth wal-Munazarah
-On the issue of organ transplant the work: Shifa al-Tabarih wal-Adwa fi Hukm al-Tashrih
-His collection of chains of transmission (thabat) called Al-Tadhkirah
-Lectures on Islamic character called: Taqwim al-Nafs
-Qalaid al-Faraid on literature
-Lessons he dictated on tafsir in Jami al-Uthman called: Al-Muhadarat fi Tafsir al-Quran
-Mujam al-Shuyukh wal-Aqran
-A text on belief which he authored for students of the shariah secondary school in Damascus which he also taught them called: Al-Aqidah al-Islamiyyah
-A versified version of Nur al-Idah (not complete) in hanafi fiqh
-An abridgement of Sunan Ibn Majah
He left behind a number of treatise on the sciences of: Balaghah, al-urud, al-Wad’, Ilghaz and Usul al-Fiqh. He also has notes on a number of works.
He edited a number of manuscripts, amongst them being:
-Qawaid al-Tasawwuf of Sh. Ahmad Zarruq
-Al-Hikam al-Ataiyyah which was published fpr the first time in in 1384
-Al-Anwar fi Shamail al-Nabi al-Mukhtar of al-Baghawi
-Al-Muntakhab fi Usul al-Madhab by al-Akhsekti
-Badi al-Nadham fi Usul al-Fiqh of Ibn Saati (not complete)
-Hadiyyah Ibn Imad fi Ahkam al-Salah
-Al-Haiyah al-Sanniyah fo al-Haiyyah al-Sunniyah of al-Suyuti
-Al-Fath al-Rahmani fi Fatawa al-Sayyid Thabit Abi al-Maani (second volume).
Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqubi was an expert in a number of the Islamic sciences, and firmly grounded in both the Hanafi and Maliki schools, both of which he taught. It is said that he had memorized the ‘Hashiyah Ibn Abidin’.
His lessons on Usul where those of a Mujtahid due to his vast knowledge the principles of the madhahib and their evidences. He taught ‘Al-Talwih’ a number of times, and ‘Hawashi al-Mirat’ in Usul, also ‘Al-Muwafiqat’ of al-Shatibi a number fo times and the ‘Mustasfa’ of al-Ghazali amongst other works.
His expertise in the Arabic language was evident from his teaching of ‘Mughni al-Labib’ of Ibn Hisham a number of times, likewise ‘Sharh al-Rida ala al-Kafiyah’ of Ibn al-Hajib and the commentaries of ‘Al-Alfiyah and the ‘Kitab al-Sibaway’.
Sh. Ibrahim also taught logic and philosophy, he taught ‘Shuruh al-Shamsiyah’, ‘Sharh al-Tahdhib’, ‘Al-Basair al-Nasiriyah’, ‘Sharh al-Maqawulat’, ‘Sharh al-Isharat’ of al-Tusi, ‘Shuruh al-Sullam’ of al-Isaghawji.
He possessed an illuminating face which attracted people towards him. The humility of the scholars was evident on him, he was softly spoken and would not distinguish himself from others. He would pay his full attention to those who visited him, they would enjoy his conversation and he would not tire of them nor their questions. He would answer them clearly and in detail in the manner of a precise learned scholar. Despite this he loved solitude, he said: If it was not for knowledge and seeking it I would not have met any of the people’. Also saying that the most beloved moments to him were in a lesson where he would taste the enjoyment of the knowledge and time spent in the rememberance of Allah.
He did not seek fame nor did desire to gain it, and did not teach for worldly gain. If he taught and gave a sermon would do so seeking the pleasure of is Lord. He lived a life full of modesty and suffered hardship as he had made it all an endowment to knowledge and serving others.
He bore with patience the personal difficulties he experienced and was content with that which Allah had apportioned for him. One of his young sons died on the morning of a lesson which had been arranged in his home. He welcomed the students, taught them the lesson from ‘Al-Risalah al-Qushayriyyah’ as was his habit and treated them as a guest should be treated. When he finished the lesson he informed them of the death of his son.
He would make much rememberance of Allah in solitude and would busy himself in spiritual retreats. He would guide and train those around him with his state and actions. To him real tasawwuf was not empty words and hollow zikr, therefore he would say: Tasawwuf is acting on knowledge, Tasawwuf is good character (akhlaq), whomsoever surpasses you in akhlaq has surpassed you in tasawwuf.
He would speak for a number of hours in a clear precise manner. His way of explaining was such that he would take the most complex of issues and would present them in way which they were clearly understood, this is why his lessons were beloved to people.
He kept up to date with current schools of thought and matters which were of concern to those in the Muslim world. He would not discuss any school of thought without first studying it. He studied the Torah and Bible, the discussions and books authored in critique of other religions. He would keep up to date with the publishing of new books and new ideas.
His teachers with whom he studied honoured, loved and respected him. And would ask his view on difficult matters.
Sh. Ibrahim had informed his family of his death 6 months before his passing away, and he then informed them again 3 days before his death that he would be meeting his Lord on the night before the day of Jumah. He instructed them to pray over him on the Asr of Friday and asked to be buried next to his mother, and that they not do anything against the sunnah nor anything unlawful during the preparation and performance of his funeral and burial. He also asked his debts to be paid and the trusts left with him to be returned to their owners.
Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqubi passed away on the night before the day of Jumah on the 26th of Rabi al-Awwal in the year 1406 Hijri. His eldest son Sh. Muhammad Abu al-Huda lead his funeral prayer in the grand Umayyad mosque. A large funeral procession followed respectfully to the cemetery of Bab al-Saghir where he was lowered in to his grave by his student Dr Muhammad Abd al-Latif Farfur.
A few weeks after his passing away a gathering was held in rememberance of him in the Jami al-Uthman in Damascus which was attended by numerous people of knowledge from cities all over Syria.
May Allah (the Exalted) have mercy on Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqubi, all the scholars mentioned in this article, Sh. Ibrahims students and all of the Muslims.
Adapted from ‘Nathar al-Jawahir wal-Durar’, any corrections are as always welcomed.
* And oppose (your) self (nafs) and shaytan and disobey them both.
* And if both of them give you sincere advice regard it as lies.
His words: “And oppose (your) self (nafs) and shaytan…” Meaning if your self and shaytan order you with a thing, or your self or shaytan forbid you from a thing, then oppose them for they both are your enemy.
His words: “disobey them both” He indicated by it that it is not sufficient to merely oppose them both, because he may oppose them both to that which they both are pleased with, rather it is necessary to disobey them…
The author preceded the mention of the self before the shaytan because it (the self) is more harmful than him, and its tribulation is greater than his tribulation, because it is an enemy in the form of a friend and person is not aware of the plots of a friend, and also it is an enemy from within as opposed to the shaytan, for he is a clear enemy. And it is said: Escaping from the self is the greatest blessing because it is the greatest veil between a person and Allah (Most High).
One of the Shaykhs was questioned regarding Islam, he replied: ‘Slaughtering of the self with the sword of opposing it’.
Sahl bin Abdullah said: ‘Allah has not been worshipped with a thing like the opposing of the self and desire’.
So generally, the opposing of the self is the peak of worship, and the first of the levels of felicity. Look to the action of shaytan with your father, he swore that he was a sincere advisor to him, and how is he with you when he has sworn to misguide you!
His words: “And if both of them give you sincere advice regard it as lies” Meaning if they both offer you advice…such as they both say to you: ‘Fulfil this desire so that you may focus towards obedience with an untroubled heart’, or they both say to you: ‘Be gentle with yourself in worship so that you are able to be consistent in it’, or to increase your worship so as to attain high ranks or its like. Be suspicious of them by attributing them to treachery because their aim by this is deception and plotting…as nothing emanates from them except deception, thus it is said: ‘Shaytan opens for a person ninety nine doors of good so as to land them in one door of evil’.
The speciality of this verse and the one after it is: The one who is persistent in their (recitation) will overcome his self and his shaytan, and will be blessed by Allah by protection from them both Allah (Most High) willing.
Note: Rough draft under revision
The article below is from the biographical work on the Sufi’s of the Maghrib called ‘Al-Mutrib bi Mashahir Awliyah al-Maghrib’ by the contemporary Shadhili scholar Shaykh Abdullah al-Talidi described by some as a ‘Salafi Sufi’. I wanted to post something from his entry from Imam al-Jazuli, the author of the famous manual of sending blessings upon the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), the ‘Dalail al-Khayrat’. The biographical entry below is adapted/extracted from his entry which starts at p.143 of the aforementioned work. I have quoted Shaykh al-Talidi directly verbatim at some points of relevance. May Allah have mercy on all those mentioned in this post, all those who have read the ‘Dalail’ and may He (the Exalted) enable us to finally meet and benefit from Shaykh al-Talidi who is currently living in Tangiers.
Sayyidi Muhammad bin Sulaiman al-Jazuli
He is the Shaykh, the scholar, the gnostic, pious friend of Allah, the barakah of the city of Marrakesh: Sayyidi Muhammad Fatha bin Abd al-Rahman bin Sulaiman al-Jazuli. He was of noble lineage and was born is his city of Jazula in Sus. It was there where he was raised and where he studied the Quran, then began his quest for seeking knowledge. He also travelled to Fes where he stayed for a time, and where he met the gnostic Sayyidi Ahmad Zarruq.
Imam al-Jazuli was firmly grounded in the fiqh of the Maliki school, and it was said that he had memorized the ‘al-Mudawwanah’ and other works. However he focussed away from all of this and busied himself with the worshipping of Allah (the Most High) practising abstinence and devoting himself to the sending of Salutations and blessings upon the Beloved al-Mustafa (Allah bless him and give him peace). He withdrew himself from the company of his friends and other people and restricted himself to his home.
Excellence Of The Dalail And a Defence
Shaykh al-Talidi said (p.144):
What is meant is that the ‘Dalail al-Khayrat’ is priceless and there is nothing similar to it in its genre, the writer of these words is from those who has witnessed and experienced its blessings. The book by the praise of Allah (the Most High) does not contain that which the author can be criticized for except for some hadith which are fabricated or have no basis. And this is what a book is not free of whose author does not possess knowledge of hadith. As for that which they criticised it for such as his words: ‘And send blessings upon our Master Muhammad by the number of your knowledge’…it is interpreted and understood in a good way as is known from the answer of Abul Mahasin Sayyidi Yusuf al-Fasi as in ‘Mumti al-Asma’ and ‘Mirah al-Mahasin’. As for that which it contains of intercession by means of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace), seeking a means by him and calling out to him by his name ‘Ya Sayyidina Muhammad’. The objection to this is from the whisperings of the Wahabi’s and their false drivel (tarhatuhum al-batilah). And in the pure sunnah and language of the Arabs is that which is evidence for this as is known by the people of the correct knowledge and is mentioned in the books in refutation of the Wahabi’s and their followers.
Shaykh al-Talidi continued by saying:
I sincerely advise all Muslims to regularly recite the ‘Dalail al-Khayrat’ for the one who regularly (recites it) along with reflection on the greatness of the noble Messenger and with love towards him will be successful if Allah (the Most High) wills.
Spiritual Path And Training Of Others
Imam al-Jazuli after his authoring the Dalail met the gnostic Sayyidi Muhammad bin Abdullah Amghar, from whom he took the spiritual path and entered the spiritual retreat (khalwa) where he remained for 14 years. His litany was thousands of ‘basmalah’ and a number of complete recitals of the Dalail and a quarter of the Noble Quran every day and night. After this he set out in his effort of guidance and spiritual training of others, and with the generosity of Allah (the Most High) received a large number of students which some such as Sayyidi Mahdi al-Fasi in ‘Mumti al-Asma’ put at 12,656 disciples (murid’s).
His Passing Away
Sayyidi Muhammad al-Jazuli also travelled to the East, performed the pilgrimage rites and spent some time there during which he met some of the notable scholars of that time. After this he returned to his homeland and took the city of Asfa as his residence. However its inhabitants showed him emnity whose end result was his having to leave it. He then returned to homeplace of jazulah and remained there till his passing away in the year 870 Hijri, may Allah the Most High be pleased with him. 77 years after his death his body was transported to Marrakesh and buried there.
Some Of His Excellent Virtues
Imam Abu Abdullah al-Qassar (Allah have mercy on him) said: Our Shaykh, Sayyidi Muhammad al-Jazuli al-Shadhili had immense love for him (Allah bless him and give him peace). It was said to him: I have excelled/given preference to you above your contemporaries due to the large amount of your sending blessings upon my beloved Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace).
And in ‘al-Mumti’ he (Allah be pleased with him) said: I saw the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) and he said to me: I am the adornment (zayn) of the Messengers, and you are the adornment of the friends of Allah (awliyah).
The Transfer of His Body to Marrakesh 77 Years After his Death
Ahmad Baba and al-Fasi mention in ‘al-Mirah’ that when they exhumed and transported him to Marrakesh which was 77 years after his death and burial in Jazulah, they found that there no change had occured to his body and it has not decomposed. Such that the traces from the shaving of his head were still apparent on his body in the same way as they had been the day he passed away. One of the people pressed his finger on his face and the blood beneath the pressed skin of Imam al-Jazuli’s face was seen to move, when the man lifted his finger the blood was seen returning back just as it would with a living person. Sayyidi al-Mahdi explained this in ‘al-Mumti’ by saying that Imam al-Jazuli was poisoned and therefore was deserving of being considered a martyr.
Shaykh al-Talidi said:
The ‘Dalail al-Khayrat’ is recited by him throughout the day, and next to him is a masjid in which where the daily prayers are offered. People set out to visit him and seek blessings by giving him greetings and by supplicating (by his tomb). Allah عز و جل has honoured me -and to Allah belongs all praise- to visit his tomb many times.
An Incident With His Father
Shaykh al-Talidi said:
They mention that when he was in Fes secluding himself in his home for worship he wrote on the walls of the place the word ‘death’. When he withdrew from people and his friends one of the students mentioned to his father- who was in Marrakesh- that your son practises alchemy (al-Kimiya) so his fathered travelled to him. When he entered upon him and saw what was written on the walls of the house…he left and went back reprimanding and blaming himself for what he had done.
Another Work By Imam al-Jazuli Recited By Some
Sayyidi al-Jazuli (Allah be pleased with him) has another work called ‘Subhan al-Daaim’ which he compiled for his children and women folk of his family. This is regularly recited by the ‘Isawiyyun’ the followers of Sayyidi Muhammad bin Isa who is from the students of the students of al-Jazuli.
Note: Here ends this draft which is in need of revision. Allah bless and send peace upon our Master Muhammad, his family, companions and all those who follow them with goodness till the last day.
-A promise can be for something which is unlawful, compulsory, permissible or recommended.
If the promise relates to that which is unlawful there is agreement amongst the scholars that it is not permitted to fulfill this promise. [Al-Adhkar of al-Nawawi with its commentary al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyyah (6/258), Ahkam al-Quran of al-Jassas (3/442)]
The scholars have mentioned that the one who promises to carry out an act which is not permitted or is a sin, it is unlawful for him to fulfill any part of it. Such as someone promising another alcohol or the like. Therefore it is not correct to say that everyone who breaks a promise is sinful or blameworthy, rather in this scenario breaking the promise is an act of obedience and obligatory. [Ahkam al-Quran of al-Jassas (3/442)]
As for one who promises something which in the shariah is compulsory, such as promising to fulfill something which is a duty upon them, then it is compulsory to keep that promise. [Ahkam al-Quran of al-Jassas (3/442) Al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyyah (6/258)]
If someone promises something which is permissible or recommended then they should fulfill their promise as this is from the signs of good character and characteristics of a believer.
The legal ruling for the above however is as follows: Fulfilling such a promise is not compulsory (wajib), except when the promise is linked to a condition, in which case it will become necessary to fulfill the promise. This is the position of the Hanafi’s, as Ibn Nujaim mentions quoting from the Qunyah that it is not necessary to fulfill a promise except if it is linked to a condition [Al-Ashbah wal-Nazair of Ibn Nujaim p.344]
This is also mentioned in article 84 of the Majallah al-Ahkam al-Adaliyyah that: Promises in the form linked to conditions are necessary to fulfill
An example of this is: Zayd says to Amr: Pay off my loan from your wealth, and Amr promises to do so. Later Amr refuses to pay off Zayds loan as promised, then it is not incumbent on Amr to do so despite his making the promise.
As for the scenario that: Sell this thing to so and so, and if he does not give the money for it I will give it, and then the purchaser does not give the money, then it is necessary for the one who made the promise to pay the price of the item as promised. [Sharh al-Majallah of Ali Haydar (1/77)]
The basis of this ruling according to the Hanafi’s is that: A person informing another that they will do a thing in the future, if that thing is not already compulsory upon them, then it does not become necessary for them to fulfill it by making a promise to do so. As promises do not make acts where one has a choice to so something into one which becomes necessary on one to do so. The reasoning of the Hanafi’s (in simple terms) is that when the promised is attached to a condition it is strengthened and thus becomes binding. [They also mention criteria for which conditions are valid- refer to Sharh al-Majallah (1/233,238,239) of al-Atasi and Rad al-Muhtar (4/22) of Ibn Abidin]
As for the scholars of the Hanafi schools interpretation of the verse of the Quran: ‘O you who believe, why do you say that which you do not do’. [Al-Saff:2]
They explain it as referring to a person making a promise whilst secretly in his mind not having an intention of fulfilling it. They also understand this verse to refer to a person who claims pious actions for himself which in reality he does not possess. [Ahkam al-Quran (3/442) of al-Jassas]
As for the narration: “The signs of a hypocrite are three:…If he makes a promise he breaks it…”.
They have understood it to refer to a person who deliberately lies at the time of making a promise and has no intention of fulfilling it, as opposed to someone who finds him self in a situation where they cannot fulfill it. [Mirqat al-Mafatih (1/106) of Mulla Ali al-Qari, Hashiyah al-Hamawi ala al-Ashbah wal-Nazair (2/110)]
The Hanafi scholars further added that breaking a promise in unlawful if a person makes it whilst secretly having no intention to fulfill it. As for if a person makes a promise and has the intention to fulfill it but is not able to then there is no sin attached. [Hashiyah al-Hamawi ala al-Ashbah (2/110)]
Most of the fuqaha have stated that the one who makes a promise should say the words: ‘Insha-Allah’, due to the Quranic verse and because the one making a promise does not know if he will be able to fulfill it or not. Therefore if he says ‘Inshallah’ and links his promise to the Will of Allah (the Exalted) he excuses himself in the scenario of being unable to fulfill it. Imam al-Jassas from the Hanafi’s added that a promise which is made without mentioning ‘Inshallah’ is Makruh (disliked). [Ahkam al-Quran (3/442) of al-Jassas]
Looking through the work called 'Al-Ijazatul Matinah li Ulama Bakkah wal Madinah’ which is a collection of ijazah’s granted by Imam Ahmad Rida to various scholars of the Haramain who requested it from him, I found a copy of the ijazah granted to Shaykh Abd al-Hayy al-Kattani of Morocco. What follows below is a partial translation of the meaning of the ijazah granted to the Shaykh (p.119 onwards).
In the name of Allah, the All Merciful, the Most Merciful
All praise is due to Allah, the one for those who have no one, and the support for the one who has no support. The most excellent blessings and perfect peace upon the master of the generous and support of the creation, the seal of the chain/series of honoured Prophets. And upon his family and companions, the narrators of his knowledge and preservers of his manners.
1) Our master and guide whose noble mention has just passed
2) My master and father, the patron of the blessings upon me, the seal of the verifying scholars, the Imam of the earlier scholars, the defender of the sunnah and effacer of tribulation. Author of amazing works, overpowering proofs and radiant path: Hadrat Mawlana Muhammad Naqi Ali Khan, al-Qadiri al-Barkati al-Barelwi, Allah sanctify his powerful secret (died 1297) narrating from his noble father the knower of Allah Sayyidina Mawlawi Rida Ali Khan, Allah sanctify his secret.
3) The Sheikh of the scholars of the secure city, the trustworthy Imam, hadith specialist, jurist: Our master al-Sayyid Ahmad bin Zayn Dahlan al-Makki, Allah sanctify his angelic secret, narrating from Sheikh Uthman al-Dimyati.
4) Mawlana Imam al-Hummam, the lantern of Allah in the holy land: Abd al-Rahman bin Mawla Abdullah al-Siraj, the Mufti of the hanafi’s in Makkah the protected, Allah protect them both, narrating from al-Mawla Jamal bin Abdullah bin Umar the Mufti of the hanafi’s.
5) Mawlana the pious Sayyid Hussein Salih Jamal al-Layl, the Sheikh of the preachers and Imam of the Shafi’s in the holy lands, Allah the most High protect him, narrating from al-Mawla Abid al-Sindhi.
6) Mawlana, the grandson of my guide, and his successor, possessor of exalted mastery, beautiful felicity and immense stations: Sayyidina al-Shah Abil Hussein Ahmad al-Nuri, Allah most High perpetuate his enlightenment with both metaphorical and actual light, narrating from al-Shah Ali Hussein al-Muradabadi.
This low servant was not at that rank (such that he be requested for an ijazah by Sh al-Kattani)and is not fit for this:
It was incumbent upon me that I should go to him
But was preceded, and the noble ones are the first
Despite that the one ordered is excused, not least when the order is from the likes of the well known Sayyid, with the hope that he encompass all of us in the blessings of the pool (hawd) and praiseworthy station (maqam mahmud) by linking to him in the well known way, by sending the most excellent salutations, perfect peace, beautiful greetings and abundant blessings.
Saying this with his tongue and writing with his pen, the needy one: Ahmad Rida al-Muhammadi al-Sunni al-Hanafi al-Qadiri al-Barkati. Allah forgive him for all his sins that have passed and those that are to come. Ameen.